LIVER CANCER, HEPATIC CARCINOMA

Clinical Manifestations
  • Liver cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. The liver is a football-sized organ that sits in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach.

    Several types of cancer can form in the liver. The most common type of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma, which begins in the main type of liver cell (hepatocyte). Other types of liver cancer, such as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma, are much less common.

    Not all cancers that affect the liver are considered liver cancer. Cancer that begins in another area of the body — such as the colon, lung or breast — and then spreads to the liver is called metastatic cancer rather than liver cancer. And this type of cancer is named after the organ in which it began — such as metastatic colon cancer to describe cancer that begins in the colon and spreads to the liver. Cancer that spreads to the liver is more common than cancer that begins in the liver cells

Treatment Principle
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Alternating chills and fever
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability
  • Anorexia
  • Sometimes fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Occasional vomiting
  • Headaches (side of head)
  • Hypochondriac pain
  • Rib pain
  • Achiness
  • Ear infection
  • Hearing difficulty
  • Red eyes
  • Stiff shoulders
  • Throat pain
  • Hip pain
  • T: Normal with bumps or dots on side
  • C: Thin white
  • P: Wiry
Treatment Principle
  • Harmonize the Liver and Gall Bladder
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Distention and fullness of epigastrium and abdomen
  • A dim, lusterless, yellow complexion
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Anorexia
  • Emaciation
  • Loose stools
  • Diarrhea
  • Reduced sensation of taste
  • No thirst or preference for hot drinks
  • Sticky sensation in mouth
  • Borborygmus
  • Lassitude
  • Yin jaundice
  • Heavy head
  • Listlessness
  • Maybe edema
  • Maybe copious white vaginal discharge
  • Maybe cold limbs
  • Weak limbs
  • Aversion to Cold or feeling chilled
  • Maybe scanty urine
  • T: Pink or Pale
  • C: Thick, white and greasy or sticky
  • P: Deep and slow or Deep and moderate or Deep, thready and forceless
Treatment Principle
  • Warm Cold
  • Transform Dampness
  • Harmonize the Stomach
  • Strengthen the Spleen
  • Induce diuresis
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Sallow complexion
  • Fatigue
  • Anorexia
  • Four limbs feel tired and heavy
  • Abdominal and epigastric distention after eating
  • Maybe acid regurgitation or vomiting
  • Loose stools
  • Shortness of breath
  • Distention and pain in the sides or flanks
  • Suffocating sensation in the chest
  • Tendency to sigh
  • Melancholy
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Inappropriate anger
  • Irregular menses
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Breast distention and pain before and during menses
  • T: Pink or Pale and flabby - may have teethmarks
  • C: Thin and white
  • P: Wiry or Even, forceless and deficient
Treatment Principle
  • Strengthen the Spleen
  • Tonify Qi
  • Regulate the Liver
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Distention and pain in the costl region
  • Abdominal distention
  • Suffocating sensation in the chest
  • Tendency to sigh
  • Melancholy
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Inappropriate anger
  • Irregular menses
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Breast distention and pain before and during menses
  • A bitter taste in the mouth
  • Poor appetite
  • Hepatomegaly without pain
  • T: Pink
  • C: Thin and white or Thin and yellowish
  • P: Wiry or Wiry and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Soothe the Liver
  • Clear Stagnation
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Abdominal distention and pain
  • Gas
  • Borborygmus
  • Diarrhea
  • Distention and pain in the sides or flanks
  • Suffocating sensation in the chest
  • Tendency to sigh
  • Melancholy
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Inappropriate anger
  • Women:
    Irregular menses
    Dysmenorrhea
    Breast distention and pain before and during menses
  • T: Pink
  • C: White and greasy
  • P: Slippery and wiry
Treatment Principle
  • Soothe the Liver
  • Invigorate the Spleen
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Facial color dark and dull
  • Emaciation
  • Sides and ribs distended on both sides
  • Staggering pain in the right hypochondrium or both hypochondria
  • Enlargement of the Liver and Spleen
  • A palpable, hard mass below the hypochondrium
  • Suffocating sensation in chest
  • Spider naevi or vascular nevus on the neck, face or chest
  • Tendency to sigh
  • Melancholy
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Inappropriate anger
  • Abdominal fullness and rigidity
  • A dim, lusterless complexion
  • Engorgement and varicose veins of the abdominal wall
  • Irregular menses
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Breast distention and pain before and during menses
  • T: Dark purple (maybe purple spots on edge of tongue)
  • P: Wiry, choppy and slow or Wiry thready and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Activate Blood circulation
  • Regulate Qi
  • Soften hardness
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Ascites
  • Yang jaundice (sclera and skin bright yellow)
  • Pain and fullness in ribs on both sides
  • Maybe pain in the right hypochondrium
  • Bitter taste in mouth
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting sour and bitter fluids
  • Anorexia
  • Maybe alternating chills and fever
  • Concentrated, dark urine
  • Abdominal distention and fullness
  • Restlessness
  • Feverishness
  • Women:
    Yellow vaginal discharge with foul smell
    Pruritis vulvae
  • Men:
    Pain, swelling and burning sensations of testicles
  • T: Pink with red tip and edges
  • C: Yellow and greasy or sticky
  • P: Wiry and rapid or Slippery and rapid
  • More Heat than Dampness:
    Bright yellow eyes and skin
    Fever
    Thirst
    Restless
    Nausea
    Dark, scanty urine
    T: Pink with red tip and edges
    C: Thick
    P: Wiry and rapid
  • More Dampness than Heat:
    Light yellow coloration
    Heaviness of the head and body
    Epigastric and abdominal fullness and distention
    Anorexia
    Thirst with no desire to drink
    Loose stools
    T: Pink with red tip and edges
    C: Whitish-gray
    P: Soft or slippery
  • Acute jaundice:
    Sudden onset
    Rapid aggravation of yellow pigmentation
    High fever
    Thirst
    Restlessness
    Deep yellow urine
    Coma
    Delirium
    Epistaxis
    Gum bleeding
    Drowsiness
    T: Red
    C: Yellow and curdy or Yellow and dry
    P: Wiry and rapid or Thready and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Dampness
  • Purge Heat from Liver and Gallbladder
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Dizziness
  • Impaired vision
  • Night blindness
  • Tinnitus
  • Irascibility
  • Throbbing headache with distended feeling
  • Flushed face
  • Blurred vision
  • Red, dry eyes with feeling of grit in eye
  • Dry mouth and throat with bitter taste in mouth
  • Palpitations
  • Headache
  • Nervousness
  • Insomnia with much dreaming
  • Dry throat
  • Thirst
  • Five Sole Heat (palms, soles and center of chest)
  • Night sweats
  • Light or late menses or
  • Amenorrhea
  • Severe, splitting headaches with dizziness
  • Sudden tinnitus or
  • Sudden deafness
  • Flushed face
  • Red, swollen, painful eyes
  • Irascibility with violent angry outbursts
  • Dry mouth
  • Bitter taste in mouth
  • Thirst
  • Vomiting sour or bitter liquid
  • Insomnia
  • Restlessness
  • Constipation or dry stools
  • Maybe rib pain
  • T: Red and dry
  • C: Little or None
  • P: Thready and wiry or Wiry and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Nourish Yin
  • Pacify the Liver
  • Subdue Yang
  • Clear Heat
Herb Formulas
Points

Clinical Manifestations
  • Abdominal distention, swelling and hardness
  • Obvious distended blue-green veins radiating out from the umbilicus
  • Emaciation
  • Dry mouth
  • Facial complexion pale and sallow or dark
  • Red-purple lips
  • Both cheeks slightly red
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability
  • Dizziness
  • Dry eyes
  • Blurred vision
  • Spots before the eyes
  • Numbness of limbs
  • Flaccid paralysis (Wei syndrome), weakness
  • Tinnitus
  • Deafness
  • Forgetfulness
  • Low back and knees sore and painful
  • Throat dry and painful
  • Five Sole Heat
  • Low-grade fever
  • Night sweats
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • Dry stools
  • Stools difficult to pass
  • Constipation
  • Scanty urination
  • Men:
    Spermatorrhea
  • Women:
    Irregular menses or
    Scanty menses or
    Amenorrhea
    Vaginal discharge
  • T: Red or Scarlet or Crimson
  • C: Little or None
  • P: Thready and rapid or Thready, wiry and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Nourish and Reinforce the Liver and Kidneys
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Abdominal distention and fullness
  • Dry lips and mouth
  • Five Sole Heat
  • Bleeding gums
  • Epistaxis
  • T: Red or Crimson
  • C: Little or None
  • P: Thready and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Nourish Yin
  • Eliminate Dampness
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Fatigue
  • Loose stools
  • Anorexia
  • Dizziness
  • Pale face
  • Weak voice
  • Reluctance to speak
  • Sweating with little or no exertion
  • Pain that is fixed, stabbing and /or severe or
  • Pains that move around
  • Distention
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Pan is worse with pressure
  • Dark complexion
  • Fixed, palpable masses
  • Bleeding with clots
  • Purple lips
  • Purple nails
  • Dry skin
  • Blue, dark or purplish discoloration of skin in small or large areas,
  • Varicose and spider veins
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Tendency to hemorrhage dark blood or clots
  • T: Pale purple, possible purple or red spots
    Red purple if there is Heat
    Blue purple if there is Cold
  • C: White
  • P: Empty or Choppy or Wiry and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Tonify Qi
  • Regulate Qi
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Break up Stasis
  • Inhibit the growth of cancer cells
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Pain that is fixed, stabbing and /or severe or
  • Pains that move around
  • Distention
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Pain is worse with pressure
  • Dark complexion
  • Fixed, palpable masses
  • Bleeding with clots
  • Purple lips
  • Purple nails
  • Dry skin
  • Blue, dark or purplish discoloration of skin in small or large areas,
  • Varicose and spider veins
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Tendency to hemorrhage dark blood or clots
  • T: Purple, possible purple or red spots
    Red purple if there is Heat
    Blue purple if there is Cold
  • C: White
  • P: Choppy or Wiry and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Break up Stagnation
  • Move Qi
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Abdominal fullness and distention
  • Abdominal mass
  • Tightly-stretched abdominal skin
  • Drum-beating sound on percussion
  • Sub-costal distention and pain
  • Anorexia
  • Abdominal distention after eating
  • Rough urination
  • T: Normal
  • C: Greasy and white
  • P: Wiry and slippery
Treatment Principle
  • Relieve Liver Qi Stagnation
  • Eliminate Dampness
  • Relieve abdominal distention
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Pain that is fixed, stabbing and /or severe or
  • Pains that move around
  • Distention
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Pain is worse with pressure
  • Dark complexion
  • Fixed, palpable masses
  • Bleeding with clots
  • Purple lips
  • Purple nails
  • Dry skin
  • Blue, dark or purplish discoloration of skin in small or large areas
  • Varicose and spider veins
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Tendency to hemorrhage dark blood or clots
  • Abdominal distention and fullness
  • Restlessness
  • Fever
  • Bitter taste in mouth
  • Dark-yellow urine
  • Constipation or foul smelling diarrhea
  • Thirst with no desire to drink
  • T: Purple, possible purple or red spots
    Red purple if there is Heat
    Blue purple if there is Cold
  • C: White
  • P: Choppy or Wiry and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Soothe the Liver
  • Regulate Liver Qi
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Promote the function of the Gallbladder
  • Clear Heat
  • Resolve Dampness
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Immobile masses below the hypochondrium or in the abdomen
  • Abdominal pain
  • Emaciation
  • Poor appetite
  • Alternating chills and fever
  • Amenorrhea
  • Hard abdominal masses that produce pain
  • Aggravated by pressure
  • Hypochondriac distention
  • T: Purple with echymoses
  • P: Choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Remove Stasis
  • Circulate Qi
  • Resolve Phlegm
  • Eliminate accumulations
  • Soften and resolve hard masses
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Poor appetite
  • Abdominal distention
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal mass
  • Ascites
  • Shortness of breath
  • Bleeds easily
  • Tidal fever
  • Night sweats
  • T: Pale or Red
  • C: Little or None or Thin and white
  • P Thready and weak
Treatment Principle
  • Strengthen Qi and Yin
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Fatigue
  • Loose stools
  • Poor appetite
  • Dizziness
  • Pale face
  • Weak voice
  • Shortness of breath
  • Reluctance to speak
  • Sweating with little or no exertion
  • Palpitations
  • Insomnia
  • Dry skin
  • Dry hair
  • Poor memory
  • Scanty periods
  • Jaundice
  • Hypochondriac pain
  • A lump under the ribs
  • Fever
  • Thirst
  • Epistaxis
  • Spots on the skin
  • Constipation
  • Scanty, red urine
  • Hemorrhaging
  • Weakness
  • Bleeds easily
  • Pain that is fixed, stabbing and /or severe or
  • Pains that move around
  • Distention
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Pan is worse with pressure
  • Dark complexion
  • Fixed, palpable masses
  • Bleeding with clots
  • Purple lips
  • Purple nails
  • Dry skin
  • Blue, dark or purplish discoloration of skin in small or large areas,
  • Varicose and spider veins
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Tendency to hemorrhage dark blood or clots
  • T: Purple, possible purple or red spots or Pale or Pale, thin and dry or Red
  • C: White or Yellow
  • P: Choppy or Wiry and choppy or Weak or Thin and choppy or Tight or Thready and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Heat
  • Eliminate toxins
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Circulate Qi
  • Tonify Qi
  • Nourish the Blood
  • Inhibit the growth of cancer cells
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • High fever
  • Confusion of mind
  • Delirium
  • Mania
  • Dark yellow urine
  • Excessive skin rashes all over body
  • Hemorrhage:
    Hematemesis
    Hemoptysis
    Epistaxis
    Hemafecia
    Hematuria
  • T: Deep red, dry or Purple red
    C: None
    P: Rapid or Thready and rapid or Thready and feeble
Treatment Principle
  • Clear s Heat
  • Cool the Blood
  • Invigorate Blood circulation
  • Relieve Fire toxins
  • Reduce abscesses
  • Dissipate nodules and
  • Inhibit the growth of cancer cells.
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Hypochondriac pain
  • Chest distention
  • Abdominal pain
  • Poor appetite
  • Fatigue
  • Pain that is fixed, stabbing and /or severe
  • Pain is worse with pressure
  • Dark complexion
  • Fixed, palpable masses
  • Bleeding with clots
  • Purple lips
  • Purple nails
  • Dry skin
  • Blue, dark or purplish discoloration of skin in small or large areas,
  • Varicose and spider veins
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Tendency to hemorrhage dark blood or clots
  • Maybe jaundice
  • T: Purple, possible purple or red spots
    Red purple if there is Heat
    Blue purple if there is Cold
  • C: White
  • P: Choppy or Wiry and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Break up Stagnation
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Mild persistent uterine bleeding
  • Irregular menstruation (either early or late)
  • Prolonged menstruation
  • Skipped period
  • Metrorrhagia
  • Extended or continuous menstrual flow
  • Pain
  • Lower abdominal distention
  • Lower abdominal Cold
  • Lower abdominal pain
  • Infertility
  • Dry lips
  • Dry mouth
  • Spermatorrhea
  • Pale complexion
  • Leukorrhea
  • Amenorrhea
  • Bleeding between periods
  • Low grade fever at dusk
  • Irritability
  • Five Sole Heat
  • No desire to drink
  • Distending breast pain
  • Low back coldness and pain
  • Loose stools
  • Cold limbs
  • Aversion to Cold
  • T: Purple with petechiae
  • P: Thready and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Warm Cold
  • Soften hard masses
  • Inhibit the growth of cancer cells
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Stabbing pain in the epigastrium which is worse with pressure
  • Substantial or insubstantial mass beneath the Heart which is painful on palpation
  • Vomiting food mixed with Blood
  • Dry, black stools
  • Melaena
  • Dry skin
  • Local redness
  • Swelling and pain
  • Maybe fever and chills
  • T: Normal or Purple or Purple spots
  • C: Thin white or yellow
  • P: Rapid and forceful or Deep and thready or Choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Break up Stasis
  • Clear Heat
  • Resolve toxicity
  • Resolve Phlegm
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Sudden epigastric and abdominal pain and distention
  • The pain is so intense that it feels like an awl is piercing the abdomen
  • Rough, uneven breathing
  • Stabbing pain in the chest
  • Lockjaw
  • A cyanotic complexion
  • Asthma
  • Dyspnea
  • Oliguria
  • A pale face
  • No bowel movements
  • Rapid breathing
  • Constipation
  • Cold limbs
  • Possible loss of consciousness (severe cases)
  • T: Bluish-purple
  • C: White or White and slippery
  • P: Deep and tight or Deep and slow
Treatment Principle
  • Purge Cold Accumulation
  • Alleviate pain
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Abdominal distention and fullness
  • Irritability
  • Restlessness
  • Firmness with a sensation of fullness and bursting pain in the epigastrium and abdomen.
  • Fever
  • Bitter taste in mouth
  • Dark-yellow urine
  • Oliguria with reddish urine
  • Constipation or foul smelling diarrhea
  • Thirst with no desire to drink
  • T: Red tip and edges
  • C: Yellow and greasy or Brown
  • P: Wiry and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Drain Heat
  • Resolve Dampness
  • Strengthen the Spleen
  • Regulate Qi
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Deep jaundice
  • Hypochondriac pain
  • A lump under the ribs
  • High fever
  • Thirst
  • Epistaxis
  • Spots on the skin
  • Constipation
  • Scanty, red urine
  • Hemorrhaging
  • Loss of consciousness
  • May be ascites (late stage)
  • Weakness
  • Bleeds easily
  • T: Red
  • C: Yellow
  • P: Tight or Thready and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Disperse Heat
  • Relieve toxicity
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Pain and fullness in ribs on both sides
  • Maybe pain in the right hypochondrium
  • Bitter taste in mouth
  • A yellowish sclera
  • Yellowish skin
  • Puffiness of the lower extremities
  • Heartburn
  • Bad breath
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting sour and bitter fluids
  • Anorexia
  • Maybe alternating chills and fever
  • Concentrated, dark urine
  • Local redness, swelling and pain
  • Maybe fever and chills
  • Abdominal distention and discomfort
  • Suffocating sensation in the chest
  • Dislike of oily foods
  • Lassitude
  • Maybe thirst or thirst with no desire to drink
  • Diarrhea with foul smell or
  • Constipation or
  • Loose stools
  • Fever
  • Sweet sticky taste or bitter taste in mouth
  • Dizziness
  • Tinnitus or deafness
  • Women:
    Yellow vaginal discharge with foul smell
    Pruritis vulvae
  • Men:
    Pain, swelling and burning sensations of testicles
    Spermatorrhea or premature ejaculation
  • T: Pink
  • C: Yellow and greasy or sticky
  • P: Wiry and rapid or Slippery and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Promote urination
  • Dispel Dampness
  • Clear Heat
  • Relieve Fire toxins
  • Tonify the Liver and Kidneys
Herb Formulas
Points