EMPHYSEMA

Clinical Manifestations
  • Emphysema is a chronic disease makes normal breaking difficult. The disease weakens and breaks down the walls between the tiny air sacs in the lungs. The causes air to collect in larger spaces, instead of many small ones. The air contacts less lung tissue this way, and less oxygen is passed into the bloodstream.

    Air travels to the lungs by two major passageways called bronchi. These large airways further divide into tens of thousands of smaller airway routes called bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles are groups of air sacs, or alveoli. There are about 300 million of these sacs in each lung. These tiny air sacs stretch like balloons when you breathe in, then move oxygen through their thin walls into the blood. The sacs also move carbon dioxide out of the body when you breathe out.

    Emphysema patients have weakened air sacs. The thin air sac walls can no longer stretch and contract properly, causing them to break. Air becomes trapped in spaces where sacs have broken, and cannot be released. This makes it harder to breathe.

  • Exertional dyspnea
  • A prolonged expiratory phase
  • Wheezing
  • A productive cough
  • A barrel chest
Treatment Principle
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Aversion to Wind
  • Chills and fever
  • Spontaneous perspiration
  • Headache
  • Nasal obstruction
  • Itchy throat
  • Cough with expectoration of clear, or white sputum.
  • Asthma
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sore throat with phlegm
  • T: Normal
  • C: Thick and greasy or Sticky white
  • P: Floating and weak or Floating and slippery
Treatment Principle
  • Disperse Wind
  • Stop cough
  • Resolve Phlegm
  • Relieve the Lungs
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Severe chills
  • Mild or no fever
  • Headache
  • Generalized discomfort
  • Stiff neck and shoulders
  • Body aches
  • Joint ache
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Hiccups
  • Anhidrosis
  • Gasping
  • Stabbing joint pain
  • Itchy throat
  • Cough
  • Asthma
  • Aversion to Wind and Cold
  • Maybe low back pain
  • Maybe frozen shoulder
  • Maybe dyspnea
  • Maybe epistaxis (severe)
  • T: Normal
  • C: Thin and white
  • P: Floating and tight
Treatment Principle
  • Relieve the Exterior
  • Expel Cold
  • Disperse the Lungs
  • Stop asthma
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Chills and fever or
  • Fever with no thirst
  • Achiness
  • Stiff neck and shoulders
  • Anhidrosis
  • Headache
  • Stabbing joint pain
  • Itchy throat
  • Cough
  • Asthma
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Maybe frozen shoulder
  • Dyspnea
  • Shortness of breath
  • Mild or severe gasping
  • Hiccups
  • Fullness in chest
  • Vomiting
  • Heaviness of the body
  • Edema
  • Dysuria
  • Maybe thirst
  • Maybe diarrhea
  • Maybe scanty urine
  • Maybe lower abdominal fullness
  • T: Normal
  • C: Greasy and white
  • P: Floating and slippery or tight
Treatment Principle
  • Relieve the Exterior
  • Expel Cold
  • Disperse the Lungs
  • Stop asthma
  • Expel water or Phlegm
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Fever and chills
  • Maybe fever only
  • Achiness
  • Anhidrosis
  • Headache
  • Cough
  • Asthma
  • Aversion to cold
  • Edema
  • Thirst
  • Restlessness
  • Irritability
  • Fidgeting
  • Constipation
  • Sometimes dry achy eyes
  • T: Normal or red
  • C: Yellow or white
  • P: Floating and tight or rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Expel Wind
  • Disperse Cold
  • Cool Heat
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Coughing and wheezing
  • Cough with expectoration of copious thick, purulent, yellow-green sputum or blood-flecked, foul-smelling pus (as in Lung abscess)
  • Dyspnea
  • Asthma
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Fever or fever and chills
  • Spontaneous sweat
  • Headache
  • Rapid breathing
  • Dark, yellow urine
  • Thirst with a preference for cold beverages
  • Fidgeting
  • Restlessness
  • Pain in the ribs
  • T: Normal
  • C: Greasy, yellow
  • P: Slippery, rapid - slightly floating
Treatment Principle
  • Disseminate and descend Lung Qi
  • Stop asthma (wheezing)
  • Stop cough
  • Clear Heat
  • Transform Phlegm
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Severe chills
  • May have mild fever
  • No sweat
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Cold extremities
  • Cold sensation on back
  • Pale face
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Muscle aching
  • T: Pale with scallop
  • C: White
  • P: Deep, weak and thready
Treatment Principle
  • Warm Yang
  • Expel Cold from the Exterior
  • Dispel Cold from the Interior
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Lung-distension
  • Wheezing with a productive cough
  • Dyspnea
  • Panting
  • Yellow or white mucus which is difficult to expectorate
  • Thick phlegm
  • A dry mouth with a desire to drink
  • Maybe no thirst A choking sensation in the chest
  • A sense of fullness in the chest and diaphragm
  • The eyes look like they are popping out of their sockets
  • Facial edema
  • Chills
  • Oliguria
  • A mild to moderate fever
  • Dry stools
  • Maybe headache
  • Maybe the sound of sputum rattling in the throat
  • Maybe nervousness
  • Maybe anxiety
  • T: Red
  • C: Yellow and may be greasy
  • P: Floating, large and slippery or Slippery and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Disseminate Lung Qi
  • Calm wheezing
  • Dispel Thin Mucus
  • Clear Heat
  • Relieve cough and dyspnea
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Dry cough with little or no sputum
  • Sputum is difficult to expectorate
  • Maybe hemoptysis
  • Cough may cause chest pain
  • Dry or sore throat
  • Hoarse voice
  • Dry lips and mouth
  • Thirst
  • Dryness in nose
  • Epistaxis
  • Chills and fever
  • Headache
  • Anhidrosis
  • Dry skin and hair
  • Constipation
  • T: Red tip
  • C: Thin, yellow and dry
  • P: Superficial, maybe rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear the Lungs
  • Moisten Dryness
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • High fever
  • No chills
  • Aversion to Heat
  • Cough
  • Asthma
  • Restlessness
  • Thirst
  • Dark yellow urine
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Thick yellow Phlegm
  • T: Red
  • C: Thick and yellow, maybe dry and sticky
  • P:  Rapid, maybe slippery, maybe forceful
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Heat in Lungs
  • Strengthen when weak or elderly
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Chronic cough
  • Excess Phlegm
  • Fever
  • Lung abscess
  • Hemoptysis
  • Weakness
  • Caseous lesion in the Lungs
  • Dyspnea
  • T: Red and dry
  • C: Little or none or Thin and yellow
  • P: Weak and rapid or Rapid and empty
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Heat
  • Dissolve Phlegm
  • Relieve Cough
  • Protect the Lungs
  • Nourish Yin
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • High fever
  • No chills
  • Aversion to Heat
  • Profuse sweat
  • Great thirst with desire to drink
  • No chill
  • Cough
  • Asthma
  • Restlessness
  • Thirst
  • Irritability
  • Abdominal pain
  • Dryness
  • Red face
  • Dry stools
  • Rough breathing
  • Dark yellow urine
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Thick yellow Phlegm
  • T: Red
  • C: Thick and yellow, maybe dry and sticky
  • P:  Rapid, maybe slippery, maybe forceful or Rolling, gigantic and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Heat in Lungs and Stomach
  • Reduce fever
  • Moisten and replenish Body Fluids
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Heavy, painful head
  • Generalized sensation of heaviness
  • Back pain
  • Generalized pain or muscle ache
  • Difficulty bending or rotating trunk
  • Mild fever
  • Slight aversion to Wind and Cold
  • Dizziness
  • Anorexia
  • Anhidrosis
  • Stiffness of the neck
  • Chest oppression
  • Chills
  • No perspiration
  • No thirst
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Lassitude
  • Swollen, painful joints
  • Back pain
  • T: Pink
  • C:White or Greasy and white
  • P: Superficial or Superficial and slow or Superficial and soft or Superficial and tight or Superficial and weak
Treatment Principle
  • Dispel Wind
  • Eliminate Dampness
  • Relieve the exterior
  • Alleviate pain
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Cough with copious, thin, white, frothy sputum
  • Chest congestion with full feeling
  • Dyspnea which is worse when lying down
  • Sometimes asthma
  • Anorexia
  • Edema
  • Abdominal distention
  • Chest and hypochondriac distention
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Vertigo
  • Thirst with no desire to drink
  • Maybe no thirst
  • Palpitations
  • T: Pink
  • C: Thick, white and greasy or sticky
  • P: Slippery or Slippery, full and maybe wiry
Treatment Principle
  • Activate the Spleen
  • Dry Dampness
  • Expel Phlegm
  • Purge the Lungs
  • Warm and Dissolve Tan Yin
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Cough with expectoration of copious thick, purulent, yellow-green sputum or blood-flecked, foul-smelling pus (as in Lung abscess)
  • Dyspnea
  • Asthma
  • Pain in the ribs
  • Fever or
  • Maybe chills and fever
  • Likes Cold
  • T: Scarlet
  • C: Yellow and smooth
  • P: Slippery and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Heat
  • Counteract Toxin
  • Transform Stasis
  • Drain Pus
  • Resolve Phlegm
  • (The use of Clear Heat / Counteract Toxin herbs and the principle of "Draining Pus" are only relevant when foul-smelling pus is being expectorated such as in pulmonary abscess)
  • Soothe asthma in case of asthma
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Usually occurs in winter
  • Cough with copious, thin, white, frothy sputum
  • Chest and diaphragm congestion with full feeling
  • Dyspnea which is worse when lying down
  • Panting with rales in the throat which usually occurs when exposed to Cold
  • Sometimes asthma
  • Maybe cold upper back
  • A greenish-blue, stagnant facial complexion
  • No thirst or
  • A preference for warm drinks
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Maybe a slight fever
  • Headache
  • Itchy throat
  • Sneezing
  • Runny nose
  • Body aches
  • Cold limbs
  • Maybe itchy skin at the beginning of the acute stage
  • T: Pink
  • C: Thick, white and greasy or sticky
  • P: Slippery or Floating and tight or Slippery and hurried
Treatment Principle
  • Activate the Spleen
  • Dry Dampness
  • Expel Phlegm
  • Purge the Lungs
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Cough
  • Yellow Phlegm
  • Dry mouth
  • Thirst with a desire to drink
  • Constipation
  • Sore throat
  • Hematemesis
  • Hemoptysis
  • T: Red and dry
  • C: Yellow
  • P: Rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear and purge Lung Heat
  • Transform Phlegm
  • Stop cough and asthma
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Soft, weak cough with clear thin sputum
  • Physical and mental exhaustion
  • Soft, weak voice
  • Reluctance to speak
  • Shortness of breath
  • Pale face
  • With Wei Qi Deficiency:
    Spontaneous perspiration (daytime)
    Low resistance to common cold
    Tendency to a blocked nose
  • T: Pale
  • C: Thin and white
  • P: Weak
Treatment Principle
  • Reinforce the Lungs
  • Strengthen Qi
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Chronic cough
  • Wheezing
  • Thick, yellow sputum
  • Sensation of Heat and irritability in the chest
  • Gradual emaciation
  • Facial edema
  • Chronic Lung atrophy
  • Coughing of pus and Blood
  • Dyspnea
  • T: Red or Purple
  • C: Thin, yellow and greasy
  • P: Rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Tonify Qi
  • Replenish Jing
  • Strengthen the Kidneys
  • Clear the Lungs
  • Clear Heat
  • Transform Phlegm
  • Stop cough
  • Arrest wheezing
Herb Formulas
Points

Clinical Manifestations
  • Severe, dry hacking cough or
  • Longstanding weak, dry cough with a little amount of white mucous or bloody sputum
  • If mucus is present, it is thick and hard to expectorate or
  • No sputum expectorated or
  • Small amounts of difficult to expectorate sputum
  • Blood tinged sputum (when Yin Deficiency Fire is present)
  • Afternoon fever
  • Night sweats
  • Malar flush (especially in afternoon)
  • Five sole Heat
  • Fatigue
  • Dry mouth and throat
  • Itching in throat
  • Hoarse voice, low voice or loss of voice
  • Emaciation
  • T: Red and dry
  • C: None
  • P: Thready and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Nourish Yin
  • Moisten the Lungs
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Wheezing
  • Panting
  • Shortness of breath
  • Above symptoms are worse with exertion
  • Weak cough
  • Little or no mucus
  • Soft voice with little desire to talk
  • Spontaneous sweating
  • Aversion to Wind
  • Frequent cols and flu
  • Occasional dry, sore throat
  • T: Pale red, dry, swollen often with extensive cracks
  • C: Little or None
  • P: Weak and soft, possibly extending up the thenar eminence
Treatment Principle
  • Tonify and nourish Lung Qi and Yin
  • Descend Lung Qi
  • Stop wheezing
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Protracted, incessant cough
  • Expectoration of copious, clear, watery or white Phlegm
  • Short, weak, breathing
  • Asthma
  • Four limbs tired
  • Anorexia
  • General lassitude
  • Distention and pain of the epigastrium and abdomen
  • Loose stools
  • Severe cases:
    Frightens easily
  • T: Pale
  • C: White
  • P: Thready and weak
Treatment Principle
  • Reinforce the Spleen
  • Benefit the Lungs
  • Warm and transform Phlegm-Dampness
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Unproductive cough or
  • Scanty, sticky phlegm or
  • Sometimes blood-streaked sputum
  • Dry mouth
  • Dry throat
  • Low back and knees sore and weak
  • "Steaming Bone" tidal fever
  • Night sweats
  • Malar flush
  • Maybe hoarse voice
  • Maybe pain in shin, foot, and heel
  • Sterility
  • Spermatorrhea
  • T: Red and dry
  • C: None
  • P: Thready and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Nourish Yin
  • Moisten the Lungs
  • Reinforce the Kidneys
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Fainting
  • Vertigo
  • Headache
  • Accumulation of congested Fluids that won't dissipate
  • Vomiting
  • Stifling sensation of chest and diaphragm
  • Distention of chest and diaphragm
  • Distention and fullness of hypochondria and flanks
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Restlessness when sitting or lying down
  • Coughing and wheezing
  • Copious sputum
  • Thick, gummy nasal discharge and saliva
  • Difficult breathing
  • Reduced appetite
  • T: Pink
  • C: White and greasy
  • P: Slippery
Treatment Principle
  • Clear Phlegm
  • Open the Orifices
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Dizziness
  • Vertigo
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Insomnia
  • Dream-disturbed sleep with unusual dreams
  • Palpitations
  • Anxiety
  • Profuse white foamy sputum
  • Restlessness
  • Indeterminate gnawing hunger
  • Seizures accompanied by copious sputum
  • Flushing up
  • Chest distention
  • Expectoration of yellow Phlegm
  • Bitter taste in the mouth
  • Chills and fever
  • Abdominal distention
  • Frequent dark, scanty urine
  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Slight thirst
  • Anorexia after serious illness
  • T: Pink or Red tip
  • C: Yellow and greasy
  • P: Slippery and rapid or Wiry and rapid
Treatment Principle
  • Clear the Heart
  • Break through Phlegm
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Palpitations
  • Shortness of breath (especially on exertion)
  • Excessive perspiration (in daytime)
  • Symptoms worse after exertion or when tired
  • Facial pallor
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness
  • Suffocating sensation in chest
  • T: Pale and swollen
  • C: White
  • P: Weak or Big and weak or Intermittent
Treatment Principle
  • Reinforce and Strengthen Heart Qi
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Palpitations
  • Shortness of breath
  • Asthma
  • Soft weak cough
  • Prolonged bouts of coughing with dyspnea
  • Expectoration of clear, watery Phlegm
  • Suffocating sensation in the chest
  • Spontaneous, weak perspiration
  • All of the above manifestations are exacerbated by exertion
  • Shiny white complexion
  • Weak voice
  • Catches colds easily
  • T: Pale
  • C: Thin and white
  • P: Weak or Thready and weak
Treatment Principle
  • Reinforce and Benefit Heart and Lung Qi
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Lumbago: low back feels cold, weak and aching
  • Feeling chilled
  • Aversion to Cold
  • Cold limbs
  • General debility
  • Pale face
  • Urinary frequency with abundant, clear urine or
  • Oliguria with edema
  • Maybe nocturia
  • Lassitude
  • Withdrawn, subdued behavior
  • Knees feel cold and aching
  • Dizziness
  • Tinnitus
  • Impotence
  • Spermatorrhea
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Low libido
  • Female infertility ("uterus cold and infertile")
  • Maybe anorexia
  • Maybe loose stools
  • Maybe chronic diarrhea or "cock crow" diarrhea
  • T: Pale and swollen
  • C: Thin and white
  • P: Deep and thready - maybe slow
Treatment Principle
  • Warm and Reinforce Kidney Yang
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Edema of whole body particularly at and below the waist
  • Pitting edema
  • Low back pain, aching and heaviness
  • Abdominal distention with full sensations
  • Oliguria
  • Cold limbs
  • Face gray and congested or pale
  • Feeling nervous and cold with mental weariness
  • With Water Flooding the Lungs:
    Cough with copious, thin watery phlegm
    Asthma with phlegmy sound (wheezing)
    Dyspnea
    Facial edema
    Edema of limbs
    Dysuria
    T: Pale and swollen
    C: White and moist or White and greasy
    P: Superficial and tight
Treatment Principle
  • Warm Kidneys
  • Promote diuresis
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Dyspnea which is worse on exertion
  • Difficult to inhale but not to exhale
  • Shortness of breath, shallow breathing
  • Soft voice
  • Perspiration
  • In chronic cases:
    Thin physique
    Mental weariness
    Urinary incontinence on coughing
    Cold limbs
    Facial edema of Deficiency type
  • T: Pale and swollen
  • C: Thin and white
  • P: Superficial and Deficient or Deep and thready
Treatment Principle
  • Reinforce the Kidneys to Grasp Qi
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Noxious swellings
  • Abscesses
  • Flat abscesses
  • Red face
  • Chest pain
  • Ulceration of the tumor
  • Maybe a bloody secretion
  • Foul odor
  • Short urine
  • T: Reddish purple
  • C: Little or Yellow
  • P: Wiry and rapid or Flooding or Tight or Thin
Treatment Principle
  • Move Qi
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Break up Stasis
  • Clear Heat
  • Resolve toxicity
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Cold extremities
  • No thirst
  • Dry throat
  • Excessive salivation with spitting up of clear Fluids
  • No coughing
  • Spontaneous sweating
  • A bland taste in the mouth
  • Cold breath
  • Frequent, clear urination
  • Irritability
  • Dizziness
  • Frequent urination
  • Cold limbs
  • A pale complexion
  • Abdominal pain which is alleviated by warmth and pressure and aggravated by Cold
  • T: Pale and moist
  • C: None
  • P: Frail or Deep and slow or Wiry and tight
Treatment Principle
  • Warm the Lungs
  • Strengthen the Stomach
Herb Formulas
Points
Etiology
  • Usually follows some sort of trauma to the chest
  • May be the result of late-stage Lung disease such as Lung cancer
Clinical Manifestations
  • Recurrent irritating cough with a history of trauma to the chest or other chronic Lung disease
  • Cough is worse at night
  • Scanty or Blood streaked mucus
  • Mucus may have dark patches of clotted Blood
  • Pain around the site of the injury during bouts of coughing
  • Maybe cold extremities
  • T: Pale or Purplish with brown or purple petechiae
  • C: Normal
  • P: Wiry or Choppy or Thready and weak
Treatment Principle
  • Resolve Stagnant Blood in the Lungs
  • Stop cough
Herb Formulas
  • Xue Fu Zhu Yu Tangmodified
  • Chinese patent medicines:
    Xue Fu Zhu Yu Wan
    Sheng Tian Qi Pian
    Jin Gu Die Shang Wan
    Yan Hu Suo Zhi Tong Pian
    Fu Ke Wu Jin Wan

    For traumatic injury: Qi Li San
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Palpitations
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Pale, lusterless complexion
  • Pale nails
  • Abdominal pain
  • Irregular menstruation with little flow
  • Lung abscess
  • Coughing
  • Wheezing
  • Fullness and distention in the chest
  • Profuse Phlegm and saliva
  • Dysuria
  • Edema
  • Nasal congestion
  • Clear, watery rhinorrhea
  • Oliguria
  • Loss of taste and smell
  • Dyspnea
  • Edema of the face and eyes
  • Insomnia
  • Fixed lower abdominal pain
  • Vertigo
  • Tinnitus
  • Pale lips
  • May be amenorrhea
  • Insomnia
  • Menstruation may also be accompanied by distention and pain
  • T: Pale or Swollen
  • C: Normal or White and greasy
  • P: Slippery or Thin and weak or Thin and choppy
Treatment Principle
  • Drain the Lungs
  • Move Fluids
  • Drive out Phlegm
  • Stop cough
  • Calm wheezing
  • Invigorate the Blood
  • Break up Stagnation
  • Alleviate pain
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • Occurs in children and the elderly with chronic wheezing
  • Recurs every winter
  • Repeated attacks of productive cough
  • Thin, watery mucus
  • There may be scanty, tenacious mucus
  • Triggered by a Cold Invasion during winter
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Tightness in the chest
  • Usually occurs at night or in the early morning
  • Severe cases:
    Orthopnea
    Weakness and pain of the lower back and legs
    Fatigue
    Edema of the extremities
  • T: Pale and swollen with toothmarks
  • C: Moist, greasy and white
  • P: soft and slippery
Treatment Principle
  • Warm and transform Clod Phlegm
  • Descend Rebellious Qi
  • Stop cough and wheezing
Herb Formulas
Points
Clinical Manifestations
  • An irritable, stifling sensation in the chest and diaphragm
  • Labored breathing
  • Wheezing
  • Epigastric distention and fullness
  • Belching
  • Constipation
  • Anorexia
  • Hurried breathing
  • Abdominal distention and pain
  • T: Normal
  • C: White
  • P: Wiry
Treatment Principle
  • Promote the movement of Qi
  • Descend Rebellious Qi
  • Expand the chest
  • Disperse Stagnation
  • Purge accumulations
Herb Formulas
Points